Transit-Oriented Development: An Examination of America’s Transit Precincts in 2000 & 2010
This study creates a typology of all fixed transit precincts across the United States to categorize all stations as either a Transit Oriented Development (TOD), Transit Adjacent Development (TAD) or hybrid. This typology is based on an index that accounts for density, land use diversity and walkable design. This study also presents a separate non-typological multilevel, multivariate analysis of transit commuting and the built environment, which is unique in that it is the first national study of transit station precincts of its kind to control for both regional and neighborhood level variables. The findings lend support for the TOD concept in generating higher shares of transit commuting within station areas, with implications about how America can accommodate population growth by turning TADs and hybrids into TODs. This can result in more sustainable commuting patterns, a new growth market for housing and real estate in a post-recession economy and the potential decoupling of growth in the economy without the growth in carbon emissions. Much of this could be achievable without the need to necessarily make a major national investment in new infrastructure but in utilizing the existing infrastructure better by encourage more TODs.